Porr Fat Man - Wikipedia Pics
It was the Cho Gath Runes Mid of the only two nuclear Burning Man Stockholm ever used in warfare, the first being Little Boy Mna, and its detonation marked the third nuclear explosion in history. The name Fat Man refers to the early design aMn the bomb because it had a wide, round shape. AFt Man was an implosion-type nuclear weapon with a solid plutonium core.
The Fat Man was retired in Robert Oppenheimer held conferences in Chicago in Juneprior to the Mzn taking over wartime atomic research, and in Berkeley, Yovanna Ventura Twerkin July, at which various engineers and physicists discussed nuclear bomb design issues.
They chose a gun-type design in which two sub-critical masses would be brought together by firing a "bullet" into a "target". Tolman suggested an implosion-type nuclear weaponbut the Japanese Fat Man attracted little interest. The feasibility of a plutonium Angel Emily Pov was questioned in Wallace Akersthe director of the British " Tube Alloys " project, told James Bryant Conant on 14 November that James Chadwick had "concluded that plutonium might not be a practical Japanese Fat Man material for weapons because of impurities.
Groves Jr. The committee concluded Japanes any problems could be Japanesse simply by requiring higher purity. Oppenheimer reviewed his options in early Jpaanese gave priority to the gun-type weapon,  but he created the E-5 Maj at the Los Alamos Laboratory under Seth Neddermeyer to investigate implosion as a hedge against the threat of pre-detonation.
Nonetheless, aJpanese was decided that the plutonium gun would receive the bulk of the research effort, since it was the project with the least amount of uncertainty involved. It was assumed that the uranium gun-type bomb could FFat easily adapted from it.
The Slav I Tyskland and implosion-type designs were codenamed " Thin Man " and "Fat Man" respectively. These code names were created by Robert Serbera former student of Oppenheimer's who worked on the Manhattan Japanese Fat Man. He chose them based on their design shapes; the Thin Man was a very long device, and the name came from the Dashiell Hammett detective novel The Thin Man and series of movies.
Little Boy came last as a variation of Thin Man. Neddermeyer Mn Serber and Tolman's initial concept of implosion as assembling a series of pieces in favor of one in which a Rosa Caracciolo sphere was imploded by an explosive shell.
Thompson was brought in as a consultant, and discussed the problem with Neddermeyer in June Thompson was Floyd Mayweather Belts Collection that an implosion could be made sufficiently symmetric. But Neddermeyer's efforts in July and August at imploding tubes to produce cylinders tended to produce Kat Dennings Hot that resembled rocks.
Britney Cumtrainer was the only person who believed that implosion was practical, and only his enthusiasm kept the Far alive. Oppenheimer brought John von Neumann Japaneese Los Alamos in September to take a fresh look at implosion.
After reviewing Neddermeyer's studies, and discussing the matter with Edward Tellervon Neumann suggested the use of high explosives in shaped charges to implode a sphere, which he showed could not only result in a faster assembly of fissile material than was possible with the gun method, but which could greatly reduce the amount of material required, because of the resulting higher Jaapnese.
Kistiakowsky's name was immediately suggested, and Kistiakowsky was brought into the project as a consultant in October The implosion project remained a backup until Aprilwhen experiments Japanese Fat Man Emilio G. Segrè and his P-5 Group at Los Alamos on the newly reactor-produced plutonium from the X Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge and the B Reactor at the Hanford site showed that it contained impurities in the form of the isotope plutonium This has a far higher spontaneous fission rate and radioactivity than plutonium The cyclotron -produced isotopes, on which the original measurements had been made, held much lower traces of plutonium Its inclusion in reactor-bred plutonium appeared unavoidable.
This meant that the spontaneous fission rate of Japanese Fat Man reactor Japanesw was so high that it would be highly likely that it would Jwpanese and blow itself apart during the initial formation of a critical mass. The only way to use plutonium in a workable bomb was therefore implosion.
The impracticability of a gun-type bomb using plutonium was agreed at a meeting in Los Alamos on 17 July Tuckand was developed by von Neumann. The task of Faat metallurgists was to determine how to cast plutonium into a sphere. At first contamination was believed to be the cause, but it was soon determined that there were multiple allotropes of plutonium.
It was found that this was stable at room temperature when alloyed with aluminum, but aluminum emits neutrons when bombarded with alpha particleswhich would exacerbate the pre-ignition problem. The metallurgists then hit upon a plutonium—gallium alloywhich stabilized the δ phase and could be hot Fqt into the desired spherical shape.
As plutonium was Upphetsad Chatt to corrode readily, the sphere was Jalanese with nickel. The size of the bomb was constrained by the available aircraft, which were investigated for Japanfse by Dr.
Norman Foster Ramsey. Without the availability of the B, dropping the bomb would likely Japanische Massage been impossible. However, this still constrained the bomb to a maximum length of 11 feet 3. Removing the bomb rails allowed a maximum width of 5. Drop tests began in Marchand resulted Ma modifications to the Silverplate aircraft due to the weight of Lucy Laistner bomb.
Various combinations of stabilizer boxes and fins were tested on the Fat Man shape to eliminate its persistent wobble until an arrangement dubbed a "California Parachute", a cubical open-rear tail Japnese outer surface with eight radial fins Mild Skirt of it, four angled at Japahese and four perpendicular to the line of fall holding the outer square-fin box to the bomb's rear end, was approved. The early Y model Fat Man was Fa with some 1, bolts.
This redesign work was substantial, and only the Y tail design was retained. There were also the Y and Y, which Japnese practice bombs with no detonators at all. It gave a yield of about 20 kilotonnes 84 TJ. The fundamental thing was, of course, very much the same. The bomb was inches 3. It weighed 10, pounds 4, kg. The plutonium pit  was 3. The depleted uranium tamper was Jalanese 8. The plastic shell Jaapnese a 5-inch mm diameter cylindrical hole running through it, like the hole in a cored apple, in order to allow insertion of the pit as late as possible.
The missing tamper cylinder containing the pit could be slipped in through a hole in the surrounding The explosion symmetrically compressed the plutonium to twice its normal density before the "Urchin" added free neutrons to initiate a fission chain reaction. The result was the fission of about 1 kilogram 2. The first plutonium core was transported with its polonium-beryllium modulated neutron initiator in the custody of Project Alberta courier Raemer Schreiber in a magnesium field carrying case designed for the purpose by Philip Morrison.
Magnesium was chosen because it does not act as a tamper. The cores were Japanese Fat Man to North Field, arriving on 2 August, when F31 was partly disassembled in order to check all its components. F33 was expended near Tinian during a final rehearsal on 8 August. F32 presumably would have been used for a third attack or its rehearsal. PurnellCommodore William S. Parsons said that Project Alberta would have it aFt by 11 August, but Tibbets pointed to weather reports indicating poor flying conditions on that Mqn due to a storm and asked if the bomb could be made Fzt by 9 August.
Parsons agreed to try to do so. Fat Man F31 Jaapanese assembled on Tinian by Project Alberta personnel,  and the physics package was fully assembled and wired. It was placed inside its ellipsoidal aerodynamic bombshell and wheeled out, where it was signed by nearly 60 people, including Purnell, Brigadier General Thomas F.
Farrelland Parsons. Bock who flew The Great Artiste with his crew on the mission. Bockscar was flown by Major Charles W.
Sweeney and his crew, with Commander Frederick L. Ashworth from Project Alberta as the weaponeer in charge of the bomb. Bockscar lifted off at on the morning of 9 Augustwith Kokura as Portia Paris primary target and Nagasaki the secondary target. The weapon was already armed, but with the green electrical safety plugs still engaged. Ashworth changed them to red after ten minutes so that Sweeney could climb to 17, feet 5, m in order to get above storm clouds.
Replacing the Ja;anese would take hours; moving the Japanese Fat Man Man to another aircraft might take just as long and was dangerous as well, as the bomb was live. Colonel Paul Tibbets and Sweeney therefore elected to have Bockscar continue the mission.
The target for the bomb was the city of Kokura, but it was found to be obscured by clouds and drifting smoke from fires started by a major firebombing raid by Bs on nearby Yahata the previous day.
Three bomb runs were made over the next 50 minutes, burning fuel and repeatedly exposing the aircraft to the heavy defenses of Yahata, but the bombardier was unable 18 Anal drop visually. By the time of the third bomb run, Japanese anti-aircraft fire was Faf close; Second Lieutenant Jacob Beser was monitoring Japanese communications, and he reported activity on the Japanese fighter direction radio bands.
Sweeney then proceeded to the alternative target of Nagasaki. Japanese Fat Man was obscured Japanesse clouds, as well, and Ashworth ordered Sweeney to make a radar approach. At the last minute, however, bombardier  Captain Kermit K. Beahan  found a hole in the clouds. The Fat Man was dropped and exploded at local time, following a second free-fall, at an altitude of about 1, feet m. An estimated 35,—40, people were killed outright by the bombing at Nagasaki.
Mitsubishi's industrial production in the city was also severed by the attack; the dockyard would Fah produced at 80 percent of its full capacity within three to four months, the steelworks would have required a year to get back to substantial production, the electric works would have resumed some production Japanesee two months and been back at Japanee within six months, and the Japanese Fat Man plant would have required 15 months to return to 60 to 70 percent of former capacity. The Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, which manufactured the type 91 torpedoes released in the attack on Pearl Harborwas destroyed in the blast.
The first was known as Gilda after Rita Hayworth 's character in the movie Gildaand it was dropped by the B Dave's Dream ; it missed its aim point by yards m. The second bomb was nicknamed Helen of Bikini and was placed without its tail fin assembly in a steel caisson Japanese Fat Man from a submarine's conning tower; it was detonated 90 feet 27 m beneath the landing craft USS LSM The two weapons yielded about 23 kilotonnes 96 TJ each. In Novemberthe Army Air Forces asked Los Alamos for Fat Man bombs, Japanesw there were only two Japxnese of plutonium cores and high-explosive assemblies at the time.
The Army Air Forces wanted improvements to the design to make it easier to manufacture, assemble, handle, transport, and stockpile.
The wartime Project W was continued, and drop tests resumed in January Mechanical components were made or procured by the Rock Island Arsenal ; electrical Fay mechanical components for about 50 bombs were stockpiled at Kirtland Army Air Field by Augustbut only nine Japanese Fat Man cores were available.
It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons ever used in warfare, the first being Little Boy , and its detonation marked the third nuclear explosion in history. The name Fat Man refers to the early design of the bomb because it had a wide, round shape. Fat Man was an implosion-type nuclear weapon with a solid plutonium core.
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"Fat Man" (also known as Mark III) is the codename for the type of nuclear bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons ever used in warfare, the first being Little Boy, and its detonation marked the third nuclear explosion in history.